全球化與在地化:新竹與台中的學習型區域比較
Global and Local: Learning Regions of Hsin-chu and Taichung Compared
作者:王振寰(Jenn-Hwan Wang)、高士欽(Shr-Chin Gau) | 首次發表於 2020-07-15 | 第 24 期 December 2000
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.200012.0179
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
在全球化階段,區域經濟因爲地理鄰近性社會資本以及制度化學習等因素而構成全球競爭的學習型區域。本文將說明台灣在1980年代以後的經濟重組過程中,新竹的科學園區和台中的工具機業,構成了兩個不同的學習型區域。我們指出台中工具機業的發展基本上是自發的地方性產業,在1980年代前後逐漸形成區域網絡,而在1990年代由於公共研發單位積極整合區域內廠商的研究和發展,造就了區域內學習網絡的形成,強化了區域內廠商之間的互動和學習機制。而相對的,新竹科學園區的設立是在國家機器領導之下成立,區域內廠商技術的發展也大都依賴工研院,依賴海外學人與外商所提供。1980年代末期之後園區逐漸形成廠商的合作網絡,以及加強與外國的策略聯盟使得園區建構了有利的學習和創新環境。最後本文也將指出,新竹科學園區比較具有全球連結,開放性較高,是屬於強競爭的類型並逐漸邁向創新型的區域;而台中縣市的工具機區位則對全球開放性較低,是屬於追趕型弱競爭的類型。

關鍵字:全球化、在地化、高科技園區、工具機業、學習型區域
In the age of globalization, regions that have competitive advantages in the world market have been due mainly to factors of geographical proximity, social capitals and institutional learning mechanisms. In this paper, we investigate the historical trajectories of how and why the Hsin-chu scientific industrial park and Taichung's machine tools industry have restructured to become learning regions. We argue that the machine tools industry in Taichung area was a self-propelled one. It was after the 1980s that an industrial network has been developed to form the area to become a machine tools region. However, it was only in the 1990s, because of the set up of various research and development institutes and their functions to integrate the existing intensive learning mechanisms of the networking firms, the characteristics of a learning region appear. Different from the Taichung machine tools region, the Hsin-chu scientific industrial park was a creation of the state. The sources of knowledge and technology of the firms were mainly transferred from the Industrial and Technology Research Institute, overseas Chinese and foreign firms. It was from the late 1980s that the industrial network has developed to enhance the networking interactions and learning mechanisms, plus the increasing intensity of strategic alliances among firms, this area has become a learning region toward innovation. Finally, we argue that the Taichung region lacked strong global connection which shows characteristics of weak competition. On the contrary, the Hsin-chu scientific industrial park has integrated various learning mechanisms with global firms and synergized to become an innovative milieu, which have shown the characteristics of a strong competition type that involves more intensive learning and knowledge-creation activities.

Keywords: globalization, localization, science park, machine tools industry, learning region