婦女家庭地位之研究:以家庭決策模式爲例
Married Women's Status in the Family: An Example of Decision-Making Patterns
作者:陳玉華(Yu-Hua Chen)、伊慶春(Chin-Chun Yi)、呂玉瑕(Yu-Hsia Lu) | 首次發表於 2020-07-15 | 第 24 期 December 2000
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.200012.0001
研究論文(Research Articles)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
本文試圖檢視影響臺灣婦女家庭地位高低之可能因素,並嘗試以夫妻配對樣本爲分析單位,以了解相關理論架構在台灣家庭的適用性。婦女之家庭地位以夫妻間的相對權力關係來評估,除了傳統交換論之動態模型以外,現代化理論和邊緣化理論對此議題的適用性亦一併考量。樣本爲民國八十四年全省隨機抽樣之五百對夫妻配對樣本。
研究結果指出,夫妻共同決定是台灣多數家庭對重要決策的模式,“子女管教問題”以及“家用支出分配”則分別被視爲是最重要的家庭決策。分析結果顯示,婦女人力資本快速累積,對於家庭經濟的直接或間接投入,使得婦女在家庭決策過程之角色與地位不同於傳統社會;家庭生命階段的發展亦會導致婦女決策權的逐漸提高;省籍因素更是重要的關鍵,其中,外省背景的丈夫-不論在一致夫妻或不同配對夫妻的家庭中之妻子都享有較高的決策參與。此外,丈夫有現代化之性別角色態度,較傾向非傳統或非夫權之決策模式。
比較邊緣化理論和現代化理論方面,由於非正式就業對於共同決策模式的潛在貢獻有待進一步的驗證'且資源論可拓展到涵蓋結構性與文化性變項的解釋,故本文支持現代化理論的適用性。至於父權社會的規範以及不同族群的次文化所賦予男性決策權的高低,將是未來探討臺灣婦女家庭地位變化不可忽視的兩項關鍵因素。

關鍵字:婦女家庭地位、家庭決策、婦女就業型態、省籍背景、夫妻配對樣本
This paper examines factors accounted for female's domestic status in Taiwan. Modernization and Marginalization theory serve as the underlying framework and conjugal pair are used as the analyzing unit. Based on the dynamic model of resource-process-outcome derived from the exchange framework an attempt is made to include structural as well as cultural variables. Samples are 500 married couples randomly selected island-wide in 1995.
Results indicate that for the two most valued decisions. namely expense allocation and child discipline, joint decision-making pattern has been widely adopted among Taiwanese couples. Based on the results from multivariate analysis, following the accumulation of human capital in the past decades, women's decision-making power somewhat reflects their potential in the contribution toward family economy. In addition, married women's role in the familial decision-making pattern is also affected both by the advancement in the family life cycle and possible sub-cultural diversity from different ethnic backgrounds. Modem sex-role attitudes, especially husbands', are also related to the non-traditional or pro-wife decision-making patterns.
The analyses of conjugal power structure support that modernization theory is probably more applicable in the Taiwanese setting. This is because on the one hand. the resource model has close linkage with the modernization framework. Also, the core argument of the marginalization theory emphasizes the concentration of female's labor force in the informal sector and its consequence of not enhancing female's status. Our findings suggest that informal work has its potential contribution to the joint decision-making pattern at home. Therefore, an integrated framework considering both resources exchange process and the social practices of patriarchal system is valid in the exploration of the conjugal power structure in Taiwan.

Keywords: female's domestic status, family decision-making, female's employment patterns, ethnic background, conjugal pair samples