社會流動、社會網絡與工人意識
Social Mobility, Social Network, and Working Class Consciousness
作者:黃毅志(Yih-Jyh Hwang) | 首次發表於 2020-07-24 | 第 20 期 October 1996
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.199610.0085
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
雖然自馬克思以來,理論大師們對於社會流動如何影響到階級意識之發展,此即社會流動與階級形成的因果關係,已談得很多(Goldthorpe,1980),有關社會流動,階級意識各別的經驗研究也都做了很多,但是對於兩者間的因果關係作嚴格檢證,特別是量化按證的研究,卻做得不多。本研究則依據民國81年社會變遷社會階層組資料,以多元迴歸與邏輯迴歸分析個人的階層流動經驗,如流動或不動,對於階級認同,與勞資對抗之意識,兩項不同層次的階級意識之影響,並探討在這個影響中,社會網絡所扮演的中介角色;此外,本研究並進一步探究“是否各個客觀的階級(或階層)向度,對於階級意識之影響大小,會隨著層次不同而改變”的問題。然而由於本研究所依據的社會變遷資料對於階級意識之測量,除了階級認同之外,都集中在“表現於對勞資對抗之態度”的工人意識,本研究對階級意識之探討乃以工人意識為焦點,這包含了工人認同與勞資對抗之意識;對社會網絡與階層經驗之探討,亦以“是否配偶成最好的朋友為工人”所代表的網絡特質,與“是否有處於工人階層的經驗”為焦點。

關鍵字:社會流動、社會網絡、工人意識
Many theorists have disscussed the influence of social mobility on class consciousness since Marx. Although many researches have analyzed social mobility and class consciousness separately, studies in the causal relationship between social mobility and class consciousness are few. Based on the data of Social Change Data in Taiwan 1992, this study uses multiple regression and logistic regression to analyse the influence of social mobility on working class identities and the consciousness of working class-capital conflict. Then it explores the intervening role of social network in the influence of social mobility on class consciousness .The main findings are as follows: In Taiwan, the worker whose current occupation is blue-collar or he has ever belonged to blue-collar strata (eg, his first occupation or his father occupation) tends to show that his intimate network (the best friend or spouse) is composed of blue-collar workers and he identifies with working class. If one always belongs to blue-collar worker, he is more likely to display that his intimate network is composed of blue-collar workers and he identifies with working class. However, the intimate network does not influence class consciousness. The workers whose current occupation are blue-collar or they have ever belonged to blue-collar strata do not develop the consciousness of working class-capital conflict. The workers who are most likely to develop the consciousness of working class-capital are nonmanagerial employees. According Marxism, the nonmanagerial employees belong to working class, which includes many employed white-collar workers.

Keywords: social mobility, social network, working class consciousness