臺灣的新自由主義時刻:危機、典範競逐與新古典經濟學者的進擊
Taiwan’s Neoliberal Moment: Crisis, Paradigm Competition and the Ascent of Neoclassical Economists
作者:夏傳位(Chuan-Wei Hsia) | 首次發表於 2020-05-01 | 第 66 期 December 2019
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.201912_(66).0002
研究論文(Research Articles)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
在臺灣,新自由主義為何能突破發展型國家的價值與世界觀而崛起?本文聚焦過去文獻皆忽略的角色:新古典經濟學者,是他們抓住了1970年代二次石油危機以及1980年代初期總體經濟失衡所賦予的機會,透過辯論、遊說與宣傳,帶來一套新的認知框架與理解危機的因果故事,翻轉了國家與市場之間的價值階序,促成1985年全面自由化政策,也讓他們從決策邊緣邁向核心。

本文主要問題意識在於探討:新自由主義理念在什麼樣的社會條件下出現、透過什麼管道散佈,又如何被接受並影響政策?從歷史制度論出發,我論證在1980年代政治經濟結構變遷的挑戰下,舊的發展型國家典範失靈,而新自由主義通過了「經濟可行性」、「政治可行性」的考驗,才為當局採納作為務實解決問題的手段。但由於落實階段缺乏「行政可行性」,並受到舊發展型國家官僚的制衡,以致於臺灣的新自由主義化路徑呈現溫和且務實的特色,發展型國家傳統只是逐漸撤退。

最後,本文也針對主流詮釋提出一項方法論反省:新自由主義化既是政商結盟與階級利益分配的政治過程,也是政策認知框架與意義系統的轉換,涉及利益、理念與制度變遷之間相互糾結的互動及多重因果關係,不宜做片面、抽離的理解。

關鍵詞:新自由主義、發展型國家、歷史制度論、政策典範
This article focuses on the neglected role of neoclassical economists who used opportunities created by two oil crises in the 1970s and macroeconomic imbalances in the 1980s to successfully promote a new interpretive framework. The framework facilitated a comprehensive liberalization policy that dictated government policymaking from the periphery. A historical institutionalist perspective is used to argue that political leaders adopted neoliberalism as a practical problem-solving tool in response to the failure of the developmental paradigm to cope with political and economic crises in the 1980s, since neoliberalism exhibited both economic and political viability. However, a lack of administrative viability resulted in neoliberal ideas being compromised and their implementation being checked by nationalist and conservative factions. Neoliberalization is not only about political-business alliances (as mainstream arguments suggest), but also about cognitive framework changes involving a complex interplay of interests, ideas, and institutional change.

Keywords: neoliberalism, developmental state, historical institutionalism, policy paradigm