熱情的科學與冷漠的經濟:異質網絡觀點下的臺灣專利與生物經濟
Passionate Science and Economic Sluggishness: A Heterogeneous Network Perspective of Taiwan’s Bio- and Patent Economies
作者:陳宗文(Tzung-Wen Chen) | 首次發表於 2020-05-16 | 第 65 期 June 2019
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.201906_(65).0001
研究論文(Research Articles)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
以知識資產為基礎的生物經濟仰賴專利經濟之運作。但具有多重價值的專利經濟能否順利發展出生物經濟,卻甚少有研究。本論文基於塔德的經濟心理學,結合行動者網絡理論的觀點,發展出異質網絡的分析方式,針對臺灣的生醫專利進行實質分析。異質網絡元素是各種不同參與在網絡中的行動者,包括發明人、申請人、專利師、專利審查官等,透過對話來實現專利的內容與數量。在逐漸積累出顯著數量的專利經濟中,至少有順語境和逆語境兩種異質網絡模式,建構出不同內容與價值的專利。透過觀察由異質網絡所建構的不同資本之情形,可以看出臺灣專利經濟著重胚芽資本,生物經濟卻需兼顧子葉資本。透過考察兩種資本在臺灣生醫專利經濟中的不對等組成,顯然與美國主流生物經濟的資本組成形貌並不相符。
 
關鍵詞:生物經濟、專利經濟、異質網絡、經濟心理學、行動者網絡理論
Asset-based bioeconomies are supposed to be dependent on patent economies, but few efforts have been made to understand how patent economies are relevant to bioeconomies, especially from a sociological perspective. This paper uses a heterogeneous network approach based on Gabriel Tarde’s Psychologie économique (with reference to actor- network theory) to analyze Taiwanese biomedical patents. Elements of heterogeneous networks (patent inventors, applicants, agents, examiners, and entrepreneurs) are approached as participants in network conversations aimed at constructing scopes and contents of each patent, thereby accumulating patent numbers. At least two network configuration modes are believed to be relevant to Taiwanese patent construction: outward linguistic and inward linguistic. The findings indicate that the dominant mode in Taiwan is not necessarily oriented toward a mainstream, asset-based bioeconomy, but that a domestic bioeconomy status is still pending while waiting for the co-construction of various heterogeneous network modes.
 
Keywords: bioeconomy, patent economy, heterogeneous network, economic psychology, actor-network theory