臺灣工業化時期女性離返移工的性別實踐與工作認同
Gender Practices and Work Identities of Returned Female Domestic Migrant Workers During Taiwan’s Industrialization Era
作者:陳素秋(Su-Chiu CHEN) | 首次發表於 2020-05-16 | 第 62 期 December 2017
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.201712_(62).0004
研究論文(Research Articles)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
本研究採取重視女性勞動者詮釋主體的研究取徑,以探究50年代末至70年代裡,女性移動至都市的勞動經驗,並分析此經驗對其性別實踐的影響。在歷史分析上,本研究補充了臺灣工業化時期不同職業之女性勞動經驗,以及其都市生活等重要歷史記錄。於此同時,本研究也嘗試 回應女性參與勞動市場是否且如何有利於女性突破傳統父權體制。儘管許多國內外研究皆主張,臺灣工業化過程中女性的勞動市場參與,未能有效使女性突破父權體系,但本研究提出不同論點。透過對比不同環境下的勞動經驗,本研究指出,移動能力與工作認同為勞動參與如何影響 性別實踐之關鍵因素。首先,勞動環境與勞動條件為影響女性能否透過 移動提升自主能力的核心條件。當勞動條件越不隔離與壓迫時,女性移工越可能提升其都市生活中的移動能力,進而發展爭取資源的策略,並開展突破既有體制的性別實踐。其次,在移工歷程中,以及返回農村婚後,都能發展出正向工作認同的婦女,幾乎都得以提升個人自主性,並在婚姻中實現較為平權的互動關係,但值得注意的是,此對於傳統性別體制的突破效果具有延宕性,往往直到夫家長輩世代控制力量式微後才得以實現。
 
關鍵詞:女性勞動、臺灣工業化、移動能力、國內移工、工作認同
This article has two goals: to supplement historical records of women’s working experiences and their urban life experiences during Taiwan’s industrialization era, and to respond to the debate on how women’s labor market participation affected their resistance to patriarchal norms. This article refutes the argument that Taiwanese women’s participation in 1960-70s labor markets did not lead to significant changes in their family statuses. By analyzing working experiences under different conditions, it instead argues that less insulated and repressive working conditions provided female migrant workers with greater mobility in urban spaces, allowing them to develop strategies for acquiring resources to challenge established gender roles. This article also contends that Taiwanese women who developed positive work identities in urban spaces before returning to rural areas did in fact resist existing patriarchal norms. However, successful change was often delayed until the power and control of the elder generation on the husband side declines.
 
Keywords: Female labor, industrialization in Taiwan, mobility, domestic migrant worker, work identity