美髮作為身體工作:從苦勞到美感協商的身體化勞動
Hairdressing as a Form of Body Work: From Performing Manual Labour to Negotiating Embodied Aesthetic Labour
作者:陳美華(Mei-Hua CHEN) | 首次發表於 2020-05-16 | 第 62 期 December 2017
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.201712_(62).0001
研究論文(Research Articles)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
美髮雖是女性集中的工作,但卻是低度理論化的狀態。少數社會學研究側重描繪建教合作體制下,美髮助理的勞動處境。鑑於美髮必須直接接觸他人身體的工作特性,本文將美髮概念化為互動式的身體工作,以突顯身體在美髮勞動中的角色。以27位美髮從業者的經驗訪談資料為基礎,本文從美髮業的勞動力構成、美髮組織對從業者身體的動員,以及美髮技術本身來考察美髮勞動的身體化。首先,美髮的身體化具現在其勞動力主要由年輕、女性、勞動階級構成,但作為時尚產業也吸引還在探索性/別認同的年輕群體。其次,美髮作為時尚產業,從業者必須執行展演時尚的美學勞動;其中美學勞動的展演緊密地鑲嵌在組織層級 與從業者個人性/別認同之上。再者,美髮技術執行過程也都是身體化的,從業者必須學會雙重的多重涉入(multiple engagements)的身體技術─ 意即有能力同時與多人互動,並可以同時動員身體、心智與情緒來提供洗頭這樣的驕寵性身體工作,以及涉及協商身體化美學的剪髮設計。
 
關鍵詞:美髮、身體工作、身體化、美學勞動、親密勞動
Few sociological efforts have been made to analyze the working conditions of hairstylists and assistants. Since hairdressers come into contact with customers’ bodies, I conceptualize their actions as “body work,” and aim to provide an embodied analysis of hairdressing. Data from interviews with 27 hair salon workers are used to theorize three aspects of hairdressing: the ways class and gender affect the hairdressing labor force, the ways that employers mobilize workers’ bodies in hair salons, and the embodiment of hairdressing techniques. The data indicate that, as one part of the fashion industry, hairdressing attracts young persons who are exploring heterogeneous gender and sexual identity issues, and who “perform fashion” in terms of aesthetic labor. Assistants are frequently used to display trendy hairstyles that hairdressers execute. As they interact with multiple individuals simultaneously, workers must be skilled at mobilizing their bodies, emotions, and hearts, nurturing clients while negotiating embodied aesthetic labor.
 
Keywords: hairdressing, body work, embodiment, aesthetic labor, intimate labor