區隔的勞動市場?:探討臺灣典型與非典型工作者的工作流動與薪資差異
Segmented Labor Markets? An Investigation of Job Mobility and Wage Differences between Standard and Nonstandard Workers in Taiwan
作者:柯志哲(Jyh-Jer Roger KO)、張珮青(Pei-Ching CHANG) | 首次發表於 2020-05-28 | 第 55 期 December 2014
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.201412_(55).0003
研究論文(Research Articles)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
全球勞動市場最近有了類似的區隔化傾向,而區隔的新軸線則在於 典型與非典型工作者的區分。使用非典型工作型態已成為多數國家勞動市場的新趨勢,然而許多研究都發現非典型勞動的工作待遇普遍不如典型勞動,並且認為這種典型/非典型勞動的區隔已經導致勞動市場不平等。本文的主要目的在於探討臺灣是否已走向典型/非典型勞動市場區隔的情況,以及是否有工作流動與薪資上的差異等勞動市場不平等的現象產生。
文獻上對非典型工作者的工作流動基本上有兩種看法,主張陷阱說的學者認為非典型工於短期工作結束後,不是淪於失業,就是接受另一份非典型工作,形同掉入陷阱之中。主張橋樑說的學者則認為非典型工作其實是提供一種連結到正職工作的橋樑,可以被雇主整合進組織之中。
我們採用2008至2012年「人力運用擬追蹤調查資料庫」來分析典型與非典型工作者的工作流動及待遇是否有所差異,並用多元邏輯迴歸模式來分析臺灣就業者的工作身分變化情形。本研究發現臺灣勞動市場已有典型/非典型工作者的區隔性變化,而且工作流動的分析結果基本上支持陷阱說,但同時也顯現了非典型工作型態內部的異質性。

關鍵詞:勞動市場區隔、非典型工作者、工作流動、陷阱說、橋樑說
A segmented trend is emerging in global labor markets, with a line of demarcation found between standard and nonstandard workers. In this paper we look at differences in job mobility and pay patterns between standard and nonstandard workers in Taiwan to determine if they are the sources of labor market segmentation. Two arguments regarding the consequences of nonstandard work are found in the current literature. The entrapment hypothesis argues that nonstandard work either “traps” workers in nonstandard jobs or leads to unemployment. The bridge hypothesis claims that nonstandard work provides bridges to standard jobs. We used data from the 2008-2012 Manpower Utilization Quasi-Longitudinal Survey to determine which hypothesis is prevalent in Taiwanese labor markets. Our findings support the entrapment hypothesis. Although labor market segmentation is reflected in differences in mobility and wage patterns between standard and nonstandard workers, we also found heterogeneity within the nonstandard worker group.

Keywords: labor market segmentation, nonstandard worker, job mobility, the entrapment hypothesis, bridge hypothesis