內捲化的跨國移動:來台印尼爪哇女性移工的道德經濟學
International Migration Involution: The Moral Economy of Javanese Female Workers in Taiwan
作者:龔宜君(I-Chun Kung) | 首次發表於 2020-05-28 | 第 55 期 December 2014
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.201412_(55).0002
研究論文(Research Articles)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
本篇文章的目的,試圖分析爪哇農村女性一再地捲入跨國移動的原因;並尋找一個適切地討論有關行/能動者跨國遷移的解釋,希望能同時掌握個人層次與地方特殊性的結構因素,尤其是影響人類行動之微觀與巨觀力量的接合過程。相當程度來說,決定個人的移動與再移動的契 機,是在特定時間與地點上;在這樣的時空中會形塑出一個人們生活與互動的情境式秩序,人們也是在這樣的秩序中計算/選擇行動的可能性。作者想強調的是,人們是在物質與關係性結構場域中行動的,是被鑲嵌的能動者。在具體的研究過程上,本文從形塑爪哇農村家庭貧窮生活環境的政經結構出發,探究在台的爪哇女性移工從事跨國的低階薪資勞動時,她的道德義務與道德權利是如何貫穿在地方的物質條件、性別和親屬關係之中影響了家庭「道德經濟」的運作,進而形成了內捲化之跨國移動的後果。論述的焦點則是放在爪哇女性移工的來台過程、薪資的使用方式與目的,以及其所反應的移工能動性與性別文化、家庭道德經濟之間的關係。

關鍵詞:女性移工、爪哇農村、道德經濟學、內捲化
The author analyzes determinants that promote the “involution” of rural Javanese women into transnational employment, arguing that it is informed not only by individual agency, but also by locally dominant social and economic relations. The determinants of individuals involved in movements are established at specific times and in specific places by creating situational orders within which individuals think, interact, and choose. According to this view, actors serve as embedded agents operating within material and relational structural fields. I therefore also examine the political economy of rural Java to determine how the moral obligations and moral rights of Javanese migrant women revolve around the moral economies of families, thus contributing to the involution of Javanese rural women in transnational movements. Last, I analyze how income control and income allocation priorities reveal the agency of Javanese women when challenging the moral authority of parents and husbands.

Keywords: female migrant worker, rural Java, moral economy, involution