差序壓制型勞動體制:中國兩次勞動法在台資企業治理結果的政治經濟學分析
Differential Labor Regime of Repressiveness: The Political Economy of Chinese Labor Law Governance in Taiwanese Factories
作者:鄭志鵬(Chih-Peng CHENG) | 首次發表於 2020-05-28 | 第 54 期 June 2014
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.201406_(54).0003
研究論文(Research Articles)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
不同於先前社會政策研究強調內部國家與社會關係的面向,本文企圖加入「全球商品鍊」的視角,以台資鞋廠作為分析場域(firm-level),審視三者之間的權力不對稱關係如何形塑中國兩次勞動法(1995年與2008年)的執行結果。中國自1978年改革開放以來,正在進行一個嶄新的國家建構過程,在以東亞發展型國家作為範本,全力追求經濟成長的同時,中國政府主導制定的兩次勞動法被認為是對市場力量的制衡,並且進一步回應日漸頻繁發生的勞資爭議事件。然而深究兩項政策的執行結果,卻發現跨國資本(台商與國際買主)竟弔詭地成為影響中國兩次勞動法「能否執行」的主要行動者,只是這種受到全球商品鍊影響的勞動法在廠商與地方政府執行層面上卻呈現出一種差別的選擇性現象,特別是在第二次勞動法上更是如此。於是藉由檢視「國家-工人-資本家」各個角色範疇下的內部行動者對於兩次勞動法執行成效的影響,本文提出「差序壓制型勞動體制」(differential labor regime of repressiveness)這個概念,來說明解釋中國勞動社會政策的治理結果為何會出現低度管制以及差序的情形,而這種經驗現象不僅凸顯對於中國社會政策的研究,需要從多重複雜制度形構的角度出發,同時也有助於我們理解中國現階段社會福利體制的轉變意涵。

關鍵詞:中國勞動法(勞動合同法)、全球商品鍊、企業治理、差序壓制型勞動體制、福利體制
Emphasizing relations between state and society, the author examines Chinese labor laws from a global supply chain perspective, highlighting the roles of international buyers and Taiwanese investors in their interactions with labor laws. State-driven labor laws in post-socialist China are regarded as state policies in opposition to capitalist market power. However, transnational capitalists (rather than the state and workers) unexpectedly serve as key actors influencing labor policies. Further, labor contract laws are perceived as differential situations by international buyers and local governments. By re- analyzing relations among the state, workers, and capitalists according to their positions in the current Chinese economic transition, the author introduces the concept of “differential labor regime of repressiveness” to explain how and why labor law outcomes are both differential and insufficiently regulated. These outcomes underscore the fact that a better understanding of Chinese labor policies and welfare regime are achievable if they are examined via multifarious institutional configurations.

Keywords: Chinese Labor Law (Chinese Labor Contract Law), Global Commodity Chains, Corporate Governance, Differential Labor Regime of Repressiveness, Welfare Regime