社會建構論、批判實在論與行動者網絡理論觀點下的身體與社會:以肥胖議題為例
Theoretical Perspectives of Social Constructionism, Critical Realism and Actor-Network Theory on Body and Society: A Case Study of Fatness/Obesity
作者:鄭斐文(Fei-Wen CHENG) | 首次發表於 2020-06-01 | 第 53 期 December 2013
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.201312_(53).0004
研究議題與討論(Research Issues)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
本文以「肥胖(症)」議題為具體的現象,進而考察社會建構論、批判實在論與ANT三種取向,在身體與社會的關係、存有論觀點問題上的差異。本文以Crossley於2004年發表的〈肥胖是一個社會學議題〉文章作為批判實在論的肥胖研究代表,分析此文所提的「肥胖是社會事實」、「能量比科學」問題,並從社會建構論取向進行兩派的分析。辯論指出,批判實在論將肥胖症與能量比視為獨立於社會文化之外的「生物事實」,而社會建構論卻直指了「肥胖作為疾病」本身牽涉到特定社會群體的利益與醫療化的結果。社會建構論的問題,是將文化、論述(或語言)視為真正的「行動者」;批判實在論卻容易忽略身體與科學知識之社會建構性。本文最後以ANT的視角指出,「能量比的科學」與「肥胖身體」,應該於知識生產脈絡與行動者的異質網絡中進行檢視。 肥胖身體是透過促成、展演而轉為「事實」與特定的存有。本文最後指出,三種取向的比較分析讓我們看到更多異質知識與政治介入的可能性。

關鍵詞:肥胖/肥胖症、社會建構論、批判實在論、行動者網絡理論、身體/自然與社會
By exploring the sociological issue of fatness/obesity, the author compares three different approaches—social constructionism, critical realism, and actor-network theory (ANT)—to analyze relationships and ontological differences between body and society. Crossley’s (2004) article, “Fat Is a Sociological Issue,” is analyzed in terms of the concept of energy ratios and ‘obesity as a social fact.’ It is argued that critical realism locates obese bodies and energy ratios as biological facts existing outside of socio-cultural contexts. In contrast, social constructionists approach obesity as a medical issue, an approach that is criticized as an example of a discourse replacing the actor. However, the realists’ approach is also criticized as ignoring the construction of scientific knowledge. Based on the ANT ontology, I argue that the concept of energy ratio should be reexamined in terms of knowledge production and heterogeneous networks. I conclude that analyses involving the three approaches provide greater space for heterogeneous knowledge and socio-political interventions.

Keywords: Fatness/Obesity, Social Constructionism, Critical Realism, Actor- Network Theory (ANT), Body/Nature Versus Society