重探發展型國家的國家與市場:以臺灣大型造船業為例,1974-2001
Reexamining State and Market in the Development of Taiwan’s Shipbuilding Industry, 1974-2001
作者:鄭力軒(Li-Hsuan CHENG)、王御風(Yu-Fong WANG) | 首次發表於 2020-06-04 | 第 47 期 September 2011
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.201109_(47).0001
研究論文(Research Articles)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
本文將市場社會學中對市場秩序的討論帶入發展型國家的討論,提出國家結構/政策-廠商(資本)-市場的分析架構,解決以往無法解釋產業政策與產業發展結果關連的問題,並以臺灣大型造船業的失敗經驗作為負面案例,檢證這個觀點。本研究指出,發展型國家理論儘管強調國家與市場的互動,但焦點集中在國家結構以及國家與資本關係,對市場所面臨的協調問題缺乏足夠的關照,以至於無法分析產業政策的成敗。本文指出能否解決市場的協調問題是產業政策成功與否的關鍵因素,而國家結構與產業特性在這過程中扮演重要角色。本文詳細分析中船的歷史,指出中船失敗的主因在於臺灣國家結構與造船業所需的市場秩序並不相容,因此中船雖然在創立初期成功跨過技術門檻,但遲遲無法與臺灣主要航商建立協商機制以克服景氣波動、穩定市場秩序。政府雖然提出國輪國造政策,保守的金融體制以及公私部門間網絡的匱乏導致國輪國造政策失敗,進而導致中船錯失臺灣貨櫃船隊擴張的歷史契機,每逢景氣波動即陷入大幅虧損的困境。這個研究突顯出將市場協調問題整合入產業政策研究的重要性,同時也協助理解臺灣經濟發展軌跡。

關鍵詞:造船業、發展型國家、市場社會學、國輪國造、市場協調問題
The authors combine insights from the literature on developmental state and market sociology to develop a state structure/policy-firm-market framework for explaining industrial policy outcomes. Our primary argument is that the mismatch between Taiwanese state structure and coordination problems faced by shipbuilding industry was responsible for the failure to establish a large shipbuilding industry in the last quarter of the twentieth century. A conservative financial regime and lack of stable connections between the shipbuilding and marine industries were incompatible with coordination requirements for the parties involved. As a result, the only large shipbuilding firm in Taiwan, the China Shipbuilding Corporation, failed to overcome turbulent business cycles to achieve profitability. In addition to demonstrating our proposed framework, we believe this negative case supports a new understanding of Taiwanese economic development history.

Keywords: shipbuilding industry, developmental state, market sociology, shipbuilding plan, market order