女性凝視:婚紗照與自我影像之戲
The Female Gaze: Playing with Self-Image and Wedding Photography
作者:李玉瑛(Yu Ying Lee) | 首次發表於 2020-07-01 | 第 33 期 December 2004
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.200412_(33).0001
研究論文(Research Articles)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
在既有攝影研究的領域中,令人驚訝的是,很少有研究討論關於女性豐富且複雜的經驗如何牽絆在照片的生產與消費之中。到底照片的擁有者,尤其是女性,是如何地觀看自己的影像?本文質疑在視覺文化中預設女性的影像只是餵養男性凝視的被動物品,這樣的視覺理論不足以解釋女性如何從觀看自己或是其他女性的影像中得到視覺愉悅。舉例而言,當代台灣的婚紗照特別展現新娘的美貌和個人風情,然而是女性而非男性一再翻閱婚紗照。在這樣的情況下,如何能說所有女性的影像都是為了取悅男性凝視?作者認為男性凝視的概念以男性為主體來討論男性觀看的愉悅,因此不能夠解釋在影像消費時代,女性觀眾的觀看經驗和女性想要製作自己形象的渴望。以台灣婚紗照消費的實證資料探討女性的觀看經驗,以及剖析視覺影像解讀的複雜性,本文認為在當代影像消費社會中,「被看」不是一定與被動/弱勢聯想在一塊,反而應該被看成是一種展示權(Power of display)的體驗。影像的消費可以被理解為人們/消費者自主的參與一場「可見性的政治」(politics of visibility)的假扮遊戲。肖像攝影是人們自主性的消費行為,其目的是為了展示自我所認同/認可的自我影像/形象(image),而這個影像/形像不可避免地會受所處社會的意識型態或是審美觀的影響。自我影像與認同的關係乃是依賴觀者在學習「看」、「被看」與「自我展示」的複雜辯證的過程中所建構出來的。

關鍵字:男性凝視、肖像攝影、視覺文化、婚紗照、認同
The author criticizes the assumption that all images of women are made for men-that is, they are supposed to flatter the male gaze. According to feminist critiques, women's appearances are coded for strong visual and erotic impact that connotes 'to-be-looked-at-ness.' Empirical data on the consumption practices of Taiwanese wedding photographs suggest that women can act as the lookers. Women not only gain pleasure in seeing their own images, but also from their desire to be seen. That women want to be the visual center indicates that they seek to display a 'social being' to be admired by others. Accordingly, women create images that are not meant to please male gazes so much as to create their own pleasure. The author also argues that female subjectivity is acquired through learning-to-look as well as learning-to-be-looked at.

Keywords: male gaze, portrait photography, wedding photography, visual culture, identity