或敵或友?流行文化與女性主義
Enemies or Allies? Popular Culture and Feminism
作者:蕭蘋(Ping Shaw) | 首次發表於 2020-07-02 | 第 30 期 June 2003
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.200306.0135
研究議題與討論(Research Issues)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
女性主義思想傳佈的過程中,大眾媒介一直扮演重要的角色。在早期的研究中,大眾媒介通常被批評爲是「反女性主義」的,尤其是流行文化更被視爲歧視女性、鞏固父權價值的文本。從這個觀點而論,流行文化是女性主義的「敵人」,因爲媒介中所建構的是最符合主流意識型態(dominant ideology)的性別刻板印象。然而在最近十年,由於文化研究(cultural studies)和後結構主義(post-structuralism)的崛起,他們發現流行文化不只是附屬於資本主義和父權體製而已,流行文化的文本其實存在於競爭的社會、政治、經濟的脈絡中,因此其中所蘊含的意義是相互競逐的,而主流意識型態也可能受到騷動。所以就此觀點而論,流行文化可以是女性主義的「盟友」。本文以文獻回顧的方式整理女性主義如何看待流行文化,其中從具有敵意的貶抑關係、到歡慶流行文化的盟友關係,這是一個充滿戲劇化、且具有意義的過程。瞭解這個過程,牽涉到女性主義對於「性別」定義的轉變。經由這樣的瞭解,才能討論女性主義對流行文化的文化政略(cultural politics)爲何,這也是面對近十年來流行文化的轉變、和再現日常的社會關係時,一個重要的反省。最後,本文提出一個新的脈絡與物質的研究途徑(a contextual and materialist approach),並且建議以女性主義的教育學教授流行文化的課程。

關鍵字:流行文化、女性主義、文化研究、媒介識讀、文化政略
The media has played a significant role in disseminating feminist ideas and politics. Early studies in the filed often suggest that most media coverage was anti-feminist and they criticize popular culture texts for degrading women by constructing conventional female images. This view conceives popular culture as an enemy. Since the last decade, as work in cultural studies demonstrate, texts, knowledge, and political practices are constructed within competing social, political, and economic contexts of culture industries. This view conceives popular culture as a site where meanings are contested and where dominant ideologies can be disturbed. By way of critical review of the prevailing literature, this paper examines the transformations in the way feminist scholars deal with popular culture, including the definitions of gender and feminist popular culture politics. Finally, I suggest a contextual and materialist approach to the study of popular culture.

Keywords: popular culture, feminism, cultural studies, media literacy, cultural politics