Sociologizing Organized Deviancy
有組織的偏差之社會學化
作者:麥留芳(Lau-Fong Mak) | 首次發表於 2020-07-20 | 第 21 期 October 1998
DOI:
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
在犯罪學的領域內,個體偏差是一門跨學門的學科,鑽研此學科的學者,傳統上來自社會學、心理學、經齊學、法律學、生物學家等。意外的亦可說是不幸的,連組織性犯罪集團亦同時變成了一門邊際學科,在社會學裡一直也受到莫須有的排斥。在廣義的界定下,組織性的偏差涵蓋了地下組織(如恐怖份子組織、秘密結社)、犯罪組織、非法暴力集團等。其實,從犯罪組織的某些特質去審視,社會學的理論似更能詮釋有組織性的偏差,尤其是犯罪組織的現象,其實質及其變異。這些特質包括物質資源的統籌,人力資源的運用,以及組織結構的理性化程度。
本文希望透過某些把罪組織的現象,如社會紐帶的型式,權力結構及適應性變遷等,以表出社會學與組織性偏差這學科的親和性。此處僅把上述的社會學古典概念當作導向工具,以表述該二學科的親和性,將不對該些概念的理論性意涵或適切性加以評論。
齊末爾(Simmel)把有組織的偏差視為社會副現象。它可能沒有一般社會現象那麼複雜,但它並不單純。若把這副現象視作另一(或非法)社會體系,則在此另一體系內共存的結合體似具有不同的組成基礎或社會紐帶基礎。若以塗爾幹的紐帶類型去區分,其中有屬於機緘紐帶型的(如地下情報組報),有機紐帶型的(如黑手黨),或居於此兩極中的類型的(如天地會、山口組)。
要是從韋伯簡化的三源權力去分析這些偏差結合體,則可發現有些組合體的領袖和權力屬於神力型,另些則屬於傳統型或理性型的。尤有進者,這些不同權力類型的結合體卻也呈現出不同程度的穩定性,尤其是在權力交移時所產生的衝突。分析的發現是黑手黨因于採用親屬紐帶及傳統權力的組織原理,顯得特別穩定;山口組的擬制親屬次之。
社會變遷的概念不但適用於研究非法結合體,卻更能凸顯它在適應上的難度。這些結合體既身為副現象,必須要調節社會正現象在其變遷過程中所帶來的衝擊。除此之外,為了生存的優勢,各結合體之間亦必須彼此因應。為適應社會變遷好些結合體走上了國際化及現代化之路。亦因此,既有的內部權力分配亦必須重親調整
以配合國際化及現代化的步伐與要求,以便在合法的資本主義的市場中大展拳腳,從而掌握好它在到社會體系的地位、生存空問,以及步向合法社會體系發展的籌碼。黑手黨、山口組,竹聯幫及14k的發展提供了適應性變遷的例子。
本文的結論是,由於對有組織的偏差的實徽性研究已累積了可觀的資料,這應是社會學者對這另一社會體系進行理論化或社會學化的時機了,換言之,有組織的偏差,其行為或結合體,亦應從邊際學科走入社會學的領域了。

關鍵字:偏差結合體、紐帶型式、權力結構、社會變遷、國際化、三合會、黑手黨、暴力團
Individual deviancy in Criminology is a multi-disciplinary study, and traditionally a number of disciplines notably Sociology, Psychology, Economics. Law and Biology offer theories to explain crime and criminals. Organized deviancy show more Sociological potency judging by its sophistication in resources management, mobilization of manpower and organizational rationality. A few dimensions of organized deviancy are presented to demonstrate its affinity with Sociology, and these include solidarity patterns, authority structure, and adaptive change. Classical concepts related to these selected dimensions are used only as an organizing tool, and hence no appraisals of these leading concepts are attempted.
The underworld is heterogeneous for it is composed of diverse units such as conventional secret societies, criminal collective, terrorist groups and intelligence agencies. Not all of them are organized on the same solidarity base, some of them on mechanical and others organic solidarity:
and some others fall in between the two ends,
Each variety of solidarity is discussed in conjunction with the Weberian pattern of authority, namely traditional, legal-rational and charismatic. We find that authority structure also explains the stability of deviant collective, especially in leadership succession.
Social change also takes place in the underworld, which is an even more complicated process, for organized deviancy is, as understood by Simmel. only a Secondary phenomenon. Deviant collectives need to adapt not only to changes in the manifest society or the Primary phenomenon, but also to that in the underworld. As a response to social change in the manifest society, certain deviant collectives have gone international resulting in the rearrangement of their power structure to maximize profits in the Capitalist economy. Opening up new niche for technological related businesses is yet another response.
It concludes that the repertoire of findings on deviant collective is ready for sociologizing or sociological theorizing.

Keywords: Deviant collective, solidarity patterns, authority structure, social change, internationalism, the Triad, Cosa Nostra, Mafia and Boryokudan