影響國初中後教育分流的實證分析:性別、省籍、與家庭背景的差異
Analyzing the Family Background Effect on the Tracking of Post-Junior High Education
作者:薛承泰(Cherng-Tay Hsueh) | 首次發表於 2020-07-24 | 第 20 期 October 1996
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.199610.0049
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
本研究以「社會變遷」第二期第三、四次調查,共六千兩百位台灣民眾為對象,針對台灣社會的特性,以性別、省籍、和父母親教育,來描述國初中之後升學與教育分流的差異。整體而言,台灣教育水平不斷提昇,而且性別、省籍、與社經背景的差異也有縮減的現象,其中以性別特別明顯。省籍的差異雖然減緩了,外省人在教育的優勢仍然存在,尤其是外省人進入普通高中比例較其它省籍早已高;本省閩南與客家教育水平雖不斷提昇,但以進入高職比例的增加最為明顯。此外,具有較高社經背景者,不論年齡群,繼續升學與進入普通高中的比例也一直是偏高的。經由多變項分析發現,家庭背景因素對教育取得(以年計)的影響力,隨著年輕人口有減弱的情形。然而,除了性別之外,背景因素的影響力對國初中後的升學並沒有減緩;至於分流的選擇,「普通高中」和「職業學校」所吸引的學生,史和家庭背景有相當的關遠。此外,在給予不同階級背景(以父母教育程度為指標)的條件下,出生於民國四十五年之前人口群,初中畢業後的升學以及進普通高中的機率均以外省男性最高,非外省女性最低。至於出生於民國四十五年之後人口群,圈中畢業後的升學,性別的影響力降低,然外省子女進入普通高中機率仍較非外省為高;無論如何,性別和省籍差異仍不若階級背景明顯。簡單地說,台灣教育的擴充的確縮短了(尤其是性別間)教育機會的不均;然而在分流的教育過程當中,背景因素(按重要性依次為父母教育、省籍)仍然具有相當的作用。

關鍵字:教育分流、功績主義、階級複製、多重類別邏輯迴歸、文憑主義、文化複製
Entering into different educational tracks may affect an individual's future educational attainment, and occupational achievements as well. This research attempts to explore the socioeconomic attributes that help interpret the track (high school, vocational schools, or professional schools) that an individual entered after graduating from junior high. By using data sets (N= 6,200) from ”Taiwan Social Change Survey 1992-93 waves”, 1 first describe the educational inequality among males and females, depending upon ethnic groups, social class, and cohort. Indicated by both years of schooling and educational progression, it shows that the educational inequality has generally declined over cohorts, although differenciations still exit with respect to ethnicity and particularly social class. By controlling the effects of gender and ethnicity, the logit models show that individuals of higher class background are more likely to get further education and to enter a high school track. All things being equal, there is an educational convergence between males and females of the younger cohorts born after 1955, who were first affected by the policy of 9-year compulsory education initiated in 1968.

Keywords: class reproduction, educational tracking, meritocracy, multi-nominal logistic regression, credentialism, cultural reproduction
  • 關鍵詞: