跨國宗教與受限制的黨國:從監控檔案再探長老教會的政教關係
Transnational Religion and Limited Party Statehood: Using Surveillance Documents to Examine KMT-Presbyterian Church Relations
作者:黃克先(Ke-Hsien HUANG) | 首次發表於 2022-05-27 | 最新一期 Current Issue
DOI:10.6786/TJS.202112_(70).0001
研究論文(Research Articles)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
「為何戒嚴時期全面滲透並強力控制臺灣社會的黨國威權體制,似乎無法有效治理異議的長老教會?」限於可得資料僅有教會方的文獻與參與者自述,以往回答多停留在「長老教會是擁有堅定的教義理念與可觀的組織資源的反抗者」的宗教特質來解釋,然幾乎未討論其對手─國民黨政權之角色。本研究主要藉國安局監控檔案並輔以其他資料,呈現黨國如何看待與對待長老教會;我同時援引國家受限領域的理論,將國際因素帶進來分析,反省既有研究對黨國威權體制討論的限制。我將黨國與長老教會互動分成三個時期。第一時期始自1965年,黨國希望隔絕長老教會於境外「毒素」普世教協及海外異議團體的影響,並監控已被污染者,以淨化長老教會,主要透過黨、政、特來工作。1977年8月〈人權宣言〉發表促生了第二時期,長老教會本身成為黨國認定的問題,故成立「819專案」,一方面運用黨、政協同工作減低宣言造成的負面效應,另一方面用特務全面滲透長老教會,是為大監控時代之開端。最終黨國鷹派掌權,視教會為聯合中共與臺獨之威脅,遂將高俊明及其他教會菁英逮捕入獄。第三時期在1983年後,黨國在美國為主的國際壓力下,轉以搭橋斡旋方式處理政教分歧,並暗中進行導從專案,希望操弄教會選舉以轉化其領導階層。綜言之,黨國的處理始終以軟性、低調、暗中的方法為主,各項嘗試幾都失敗。關鍵在於該會擁有龐大的跨國教會網絡,並在歷史演進及與黨國動態互動過程中,確立了普世教會的認同,而敢於牴觸它眼中失去正當性的黨國,有意願及能力迅速靈活地動員該網絡,以掣肘急需美國為首之自由世界支持的黨國,終使長老教會成為黨國難以治理的受限領域。

關鍵詞:長老教會、政教關係、黨國威權體制、跨國宗教、國家受限領域
The author uses surveillance documents from state intelligence agencies to explain why the Kuomintang (KMT) state failed to govern the Presbyterian Church of Taiwan (PCT) during the country's martial law era. This analysis of state church relationships takes the factor of international environment seriously. State-church interactions unfolded in three phases: first, the partystate tried to isolate the PCT from foreign influences in order to purify the church politically. Second, the KMT tried to infiltrate and surveil the PCT after the church made a controversial policy decision in 1977. Third, the state felt increasing international pressure (especially from Washington) even though it was covertly trying to influence a PCT election to establish a statefriendly church leadership. The author argues that KMT various attempts to control the relationship hardly succeeded, and that the primary reason was a transnational Presbyterian Church network operating at a time when the party-state needed Cold War support from the West.

Keywords: Presbyterian Church in Taiwan (PCT), state-church relationship, party-state authoritarianism, transnational religion, area of limited statehood