成為「邵族人」:基因科學與原住民正名的認同政治
Becoming “Thao”: Genetic Science, Identity Construction and the Thao Aboriginal Movement
作者:蔡友月(Yu-Yueh TSAI) | 首次發表於 2020-05-16 | 第 62 期 December 2017
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.201712_(62).0003
研究論文(Research Articles)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
隨著生物醫學全球化的強勢發展,在世界各地族群認證、正名與認同建構中,基因科技與知識逐漸扮演越來越重要的角色。本文以2001年臺灣第一個正名成功的原住民─邵族為例,指出基因證據是一種「策略性的科學本質主義」,族群運動者擷取對正名運動有利的科學研究部分成果,憑藉DNA的科學證據,在原住民正名運動過程中形塑出帶有權威、本質化的族群認同,以此作為劃定差異、爭取認同的政治資源。邵族正名之後,DNA的科學論述不再扮演重要的角色,長期與國家抗爭的還我土地運動、邵族民族議會成立,以及推動邵族母語教學等等,才是形塑當今邵族族群性的重要力量。由邵族正名前「策略性的科學本質主義」,到邵族正名後「策略性的去本質主義」,本文凸顯族群認同的本質不是固定不變,而是社會、政治行動過程中匯集的產物;族群界線隨著各種政治機會被強化、弱化或改變。當一個族群的認同被廣泛接受且持續存在,基因研究會被視為一種外來風險;相反地,如果該族群正經歷認同的爭議,基因研究者和族群運動者有可能形成潛在的盟友。邵族正名成功的例子,彰顯在後基因體時代,基因知識具有形塑身分認同與差異的重要潛能,它能夠介入少數族群肯認政治和資源的獲取與再分配,值得我們重視。
 
關鍵詞:基因、邵族、認同政治、策略性的科學本質主義、族群性
Using the name rectification movement of the Thao people in Taiwan as an example, this article analyzes how name rectification activists used human genome research to achieve their re-naming goal. I use historical and field data to argue that Thao ethnic activists used DNA evidence as an example of “strategic scientific essentialism” in Thao identity formation. After the Thao were officially recognized by the Taiwan government in 2001, DNA evidence was deemphasized compared to land ownership, the establishment of a Thao national council, and the promotion of Thao language learning in the construction of Thao ethnicity. This shift from strategic scientific essentialism to strategic scientific de-essentialism confirms that ethnic identity is not primordial, but a product shaped by social and political change. The Thao’s successful re-naming campaign demonstrates how genetic knowledge can generate significant social effects on resource access and power redistribution by shaping ethnic identity and differences.
 
Keywords: genetics, aborigines, identity politics, strategic scientific essentialism, ethnicity