婚育溢酬或懲罰?-家庭生命週期與公司內權威晉陞之性別差異
Parenthood Premium or Penalty?Family Life Cycles and Gender Differences Involving Within-Firm Job Authority Promotion
作者:張峰彬(Feng-Bin CHANG) | 首次發表於 2020-06-01 | 第 53 期 December 2013
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.201312_(53).0001
研究論文(Research Articles)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
工作權威(job authority)一直是社會階層研究中的重要議題。在東西方社會裡,工作職位上的男尊女卑是一個普遍的現象。然而,過往的相關研究多數是利用橫斷面資料或是單一組織或產業的個案分析,因此欠缺從生命歷程的觀點,以動態的分析方式來驗證家庭生命週期如何影響兩性工作權威流動經驗。本研究利用2005年「東亞社會階層與社會動研究計畫」所收集的回溯性工作史資 ,藉由事件史分析法,探討不同家庭生命週期階段如何影響男性和女性員工獲得公司內工作權威晉陞的機會。本研究發現男性工作者在結婚之後,獲得公司內權威晉陞的機會開始上升,而且在妻子懷第一胎時達到高峰。相反地,女性的工作權威晉陞機會則是受到結婚和養育學齡前子女所限制。女性在剛結婚之後,便明顯增加退出職場的機會,而且是在懷第一胎時最容易退出職場。當最小子女0到6歲的時候,照顧幼兒的責任會增加女性退出職場的機率。因此,兩性工作權威落差的擴大是以結婚為開端,而懷第一胎的時候是加深兩性權威落差的關鍵期。面對職場普遍存在男性婚育溢酬的情況下,女性謀求工作權威晉陞的關鍵在於需要具備高學歷、進入私人大企業、和累積職務歷練之外,同時要避免因為婚育而退出職位晉陞的競賽跑道。

關鍵詞:工作權威、公司內職位晉陞、家庭生命週期、婚育溢酬、事件史分析法
Job authority change researchers have tended to use cross-sectional data or to rely solely on data from one organization or industry, thereby overlooking the effects of family life cycle on gender gaps in job authority. To overcome these limitations, in this study I use job history data from the Social Stratification and Mobility in East Asia study to examine gender differences in within-firm upward mobility in Taiwan. Results indicate a fatherhood premium among males, with married male having higher probabilities of job promotions compared to single males. This probability reaches its peak when a married worker becomes a father for the first time. In contrast, female workers tend to face motherhood penalties. After entering marriage, the potential for female workers to quit their jobs increases significantly, and the probability of leaving the labor market is highest when she becomes pregnant for the first time.

Keywords: Job Authority, Within-Firm Promotion, Family Life Cycle, Parenthood Premium, Event History Analysis