去中國留學:旅中台生的制度框架與遷移軌跡
Taiwanese Students Pursuing Higher Education in China: Institutional Frameworks and Migration Trajectories
作者:吳伊凡(Yi-Fan WU)、藍佩嘉(Pei-Chia LAN) | 首次發表於 2020-06-01 | 第 50 期 September 2012
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.201209_(50).0001
研究論文(Research Articles)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
近二十多年來,有逐步增加的臺灣學生前往中國大陸就讀大學或研究所,本文以這個特殊的經驗案例來和學生遷移的文獻進行對話。透過對旅中台生的深度訪談以及相關制度與文獻的蒐集,我們試圖從鉅觀制度、中層組織與微觀個人等三個相互構成的層次,來分析旅中台生的前端(入學)與後端(就業)的遷移軌跡。本文歸納出三種類型的旅中台生,分別有著不同的遷移動機、入學管道與勞動市場後果:學位導向、工作導向以及家庭引導。我們認為,旅中台生案例的特殊之處在於,中國政府的招收台生政策以擬似「國內遷移」的制度框架,影響著一群在實質位置上近於「國際遷移」情境的台生群體。一方面,留學國政府採取「再疆域化」的政策工具,來證成其照顧「臺灣同胞」的具體作為與身任「領土祖國」的政治宣示;另一方面,留學生利用政治優惠的教育機會,來施展「去疆域化」的空間流動與彈性資本積累策略。兩者的相遇,既形成彼此的互惠關係,也造成了潛在的矛盾。台生在兩岸的教育空間與就業市場上,都面臨「夾在中間」的曖昧身分定位。

關鍵詞:學生遷移、華僑、僑教政策、再疆域化、兩岸關係
A growing number of Taiwanese students have emigrated to China for higher education purposes during the last two decades. The authors use this specific case to engage the student migration literature. Based on indepth interviews and policy analysis, we examine the migration trajectories of Taiwanese students according to an analytical framework consisting of macro (policy), meso (organizational), and micro (individual) levels. We have identified three types of Taiwanese students—degree-oriented, work-oriented, and family-guided—with further differences in terms of migration motivation, school access, and labor market consequences. This case is special in that the Chinese government is giving these students a quasi-internal migration status that conflicts with the fact that these students crossed national borders. The host government adopts a policy of “reterritorialization” to symbolically address the “homeland” status of Taiwanese students, while the students themselves enact a strategy of “deterritorialization” for the purposes of spatial mobility and capital accumulation. Such encounters hold potential benefits and contradictions, and Taiwanese students find themselves in an ambivalent postion of “in-betweeness” regarding both educational and labor market status.

Keywords: student migration, reterritorialization, cross-strait relations