戰後台灣國小教科書中的障礙者意象分析
Representations of Disabled People in Elementary School Textbooks in Post-War Taiwan
作者:張恆豪(Heng-hao Chang)、蘇峰山(Feng-San Su) | 首次發表於 2020-06-28 | 第 42 期 June 2009
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.200906_(42).0004
研究紀要(Research Notes)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
台灣關於性別、族群關係、階級等差異與不平等的教科書研究,已經累積了顯著的成果,但對教科書中障礙者意象批判性的反省卻十分缺乏。本文運用內容分析,檢視1952到2003年間國小教科書中障礙者的意象,包括身心障礙者的角色出現的數量、類型與詮釋的方式。同時,本文將從障礙研究的角度出發,探討在不同的歷史階段中,台灣身心障礙者的意象在國小教科書中的社會建構。並從障礙研究的角度,針對教科書中障礙者意象的再現提供批判性的反省。針對國小教科書的內容分析中,我們指出台灣國小教科書中身心障礙者再現的幾個特點:(1)身心障礙者在課本中出現的比率非常少。在包含障礙者的課文中,障礙者的意象以肢體障礙為主,心智障礙者幾乎不存在;(2)指稱方式從 「殘廢」,轉變為「(身心)障礙者」;(3)兩極化的障礙者意象:課文中身心障礙者的論述不是可憐的、需要幫助的、就是勵志的,可以鼓舞一般人的;(4)「障礙」被定義為個人問題,忽略了社會環境所造成的障礙;(5)缺乏身心障礙者的聲音與世界觀,也缺乏障礙者的異質性及多元文化觀點的討論。

關鍵詞:障礙研究、內容分析、教科書、社會模式觀點的障礙、健常能力偏見
Many researchers have investigated representations of class, gender, ethnicity, and sexuality in Taiwanese textbooks, but few have focused on representations of disabilities. In this paper, the authors use content analysis procedures to explore frequencies of appearance, categories, naming, and portrayal of disabled persons in elementary school textbooks from 1952 to 2003. We also explore representations of ableism ideology in textbooks from a perspective of disability studies. According to our findings, disabled persons are significantly underrepresented in textbooks, and those that are represented mostly have physical disabilities; people with mental illnesses are almost completely overlooked. Second, we noted a change in the term used to refer to people with disabilities, from cán fèi (handicapped) to zhàng ài zhe (disabled persons). Third, people with disabilities are usually portrayed as “the other,” in need of assistance or serving as inspirations for people without disabilities. Fourth, disabilities are defined as individual rather than social problems. Fifth, disabled persons in textbooks are mostly voiceless. No discussion was found regarding the worldview of disabled persons, and few discussions addressing the diversity and multiculturalism of disabled persons were noted.

Keywords: disability studies, content analysis, textbooks, social model of disability, ableism