台灣人口政策的歷史形構
Historical Formation of Population Policy in Taiwan
作者:蔡宏政(Hung-Jeng TSAI) | 首次發表於 2020-06-29 | 第 39 期 December 2007
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.200712_(39).0002
研究論文(Research Articles)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
本文是對台灣戰後人口政策的一次傅科式考察,焦點集中分析從1950年代末期到1960年代末期,台灣家庭計畫為何成為一個功效卓著的權力-知識綜合體之歷史形構過程。本文首先從形式人口學的「客觀定律」開始,說明台灣的人口轉型是一個「被壓縮的」過程,而人口學文獻對這一被壓縮的人口轉型所提供的解釋不足,國家的強力干預並沒有被很好地考慮進去。因此,我們挖掘當時國府制訂節育政策的轉折,指出家庭計畫的主導力量事實上是美國當時的地緣政治經濟考量,美國政府一方面透過台灣的政府單位制定人口政策,另一方面則訓練人口學者、組建「民間」團體,來形成一個有效執行家庭計畫的權力-知識綜合體。最後,我們對家庭計畫「生產性」的正反面進行評估,說明這個權力-知識綜合體的有效性範圍,以及它的負面衝擊─生育率加速下 跌帶來的快速人口老化,台灣社會對人口老化現象感受的鈍化,使得一個「生產性」的鼓勵生育政策無法誕生。

關鍵詞:權力-知識綜合體、人口轉型、家庭計畫、東亞地緣政治、人口老化
A Foucauldian analysis on population policy formation in postwar Taiwan is presented in this paper, with a specific focus on the historical formation of family planning as an effective power-knowledge complex lasting from the late 1950s to the late 1960s. I start with a description of “objective”population transformation theory and explain why the Taiwanese transformation process was condensed. The current literature does not provide a satisfactory explanation for this condensation because the state role was not well-considered. Next, I explore subtle changes in family policy promoted by the KMT government and report the finding that American geo-political strategy in East Asia was the driving force behind the Taiwanese family plan. Last, I evaluate positive and negative influences of the family plan to explain the effective scope of the power-knowledge complex, describing how it promoted capital accumulation and sped up the aging rate of the Taiwanese population, thereby paralyzing societal consciousness regarding the impacts of aging.

Keywords: power-knowledge complex, demographic transformation, family planning, East Asian geopolitics, population aging