階層化的他者:家務移工的招募、訓練與種族化
Stratified Otherization: Recruitment, Training and Racialization of Migrant Domestic Workers
作者:藍佩嘉(Pei-Chia Lan) | 首次發表於 2020-06-30 | 第 34 期 June 2005
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.200506_(34).0001
研究論文(Research Articles)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
「種族化」指的是將特定社群的生物或文化特性標示、界定爲自然本質的社會過程。本文檢視台灣仲介對於不同國籍的家務移工所賦予的種族化論述,以及仲介如何透過招募機制、訓練過程來強化族差異的建構。經驗資料的收集針對菲律賓與印尼藉家務移工進行比較,探討何以兩者在近年來呈現數量相對消長的情形。本研究發現,仲介業者藉由類型化的刻板印象,建構出階層化的種族他者,並且在移工勞動市場中創造市場利基,以及工作內容、勞動權益上的區隔。仲介業者在向雇主促銷印尼女傭的同時,必須折衷化解移工的「控制形象」上的矛盾,要把不文明、落後的移工形象,轉化爲有紀律、服從、專業的僕人。本文指出,仲介透過在三項具體的組織作爲來製造「理想的女傭」:(1)經由選擇性的招募管道,仲介刻意尋找溫順的、從屬於地方監控網絡的年輕農村女性;(2)經由規訓性的訓練課程,來「文明化」、「現代化」這些鄉下女孩;(3)經由服裝、髮型與個性的管理,來呈現出一種去女性化、符應雇主期待與理像的僕人樣貌。

關鍵字:種族化、他者化、外勞/移工、家務勞工、仲介
Racialization is a social process through which groups are marked by physical or cultural differences that become naturalized as essential. The author looks at the racialization of migrant domestic workers in Taiwan with a focus on employment agency discourses and practices. Taiwan has recently witnessed a decline in the recruitment of Filipina maids and a consequent increase in the number of Indonesian maids. This paper analyzes hidden reasons behind the ethnic stratification of these groups, in particular, the tendency of recruitment agents to establish differences between ”unruly Filipinas” and ”docile Indonesians” to rationalize market segmentation and hierarchical labor conditions. Those agencies also actively produce ”ideal servants” by a) purposefully recruiting young female villagers subject to local network control; b) ”civilizing” and ”modernizing” these women through training; and c) representing migrant women as de-feminized and suitable servants through the management of d ress codes, hairstyles, and personality.

Keywords: racialization, Otherization, migrant worker, domestic worker, recruitment agency