文化、構框與社會運動
Culture, Framing and Social Movement
作者:何明修(Ming-Sho Ho) | 首次發表於 2020-07-01 | 第 33 期 December 2004
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.200412_(33).0004
研究議題與討論(Research Issues)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
以往社會運動研究者重視動員結構與政治過程,在九○年代以來,社會學家開始注重社會運動與文化的關係。在既有分析途徑中,構框理論是廣為普遍運用的一種。構框是指建立一套詮釋外在世界的架構之過程,亦即是社會運動如何生產出文化的意義。本文探討,Snow等人一開始如何以互動論的理論預設來提出構框理論。在早期的看法中,構框是訴諸於支持者,而其主要作用在於形塑動員共識。相對地,構框的策略性與組織性面向則是較少討論。本文贊同構框理論應該擴展其研究範圍,納入策略與組織的考量。因此,構框除了強化參與者的動機以外,其策略性運用更可以用來(1)利用政治輿論、(2)維持參與士氣、(3)減少反對阻力。組織性構框方面,構框過程是受到組織動態所影響,包括競爭、合作、學習等因素。本文接受策略理性的預設,但是也主張應該避免過度的志願論立場。社會運動的理性是高度受限的,是受制於當事者的傳記背景、政治文化、構框劇碼等條件的限制。基本上,本文認為構框理論的發展潛力仍值得開發,如果能夠有系統地處理當前研究的一些歧異,社會運動的文化分析將會更有累積性。

關鍵字:構框、文化、社會運動、策略 
The author offers a review of studies on social movement framing. Framing is defined as a) a collective process for building a shared interpretative schema for the outside world, and b) the means by which social movements produce cultural meanings. This paper traces the interactionist standpoint used by David Snow and his colleagues to establish their framing theory. In the early phase, framing studies primarily focused on small circles of potential supporters and their capacity to create a consensus. Earlier studies tended to under-theorize the strategic and organizational dimensions of framing. In more recent scholarly works, framing can be conceptualized as making use of political opinions, maintaining participant morale, and avoiding resistance. Recent studies also show the extent to which framing is subject to organizational processes such as competition, cooperation, and learning. While endorsing the strategic aspects of framing theory, this review also warns against excessive voluntarism. Rationality in framing is bounded by the actors' biographies, histories, and pre-existing cultural repertoires. If some conceptual difficulties can be resolved, framing theory is a promising explanatory approach to relations between social movement and culture.

Keywords: framing, culture, social movement, strategy