世俗時代中宗教徒的雙層反身性:以中國基督教大學生為例
Two-Layered Reflexivity of Believers in a Secular Age: Religious Discourse and Religious Experiences among Christian College Students in China
作者:黃克先(Ke-Hsien HUANG) | 首次發表於 2020-05-17 | 第 61 期 June 2017
DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.6786/TJS.201706_(61).0001
研究論文(Research Articles)
論文資訊 | Article information
摘要 Abstract
近期歐美大學校園內出現宗教活動復現之趨勢,學生雖進入了以往 被視為世俗主義堡壘之地卻未因此棄教反而熱衷追求信仰。更引人注目的是,仍奉行無神論、並嚴禁宗教活動的中國校園,竟也出現「大學生宗教熱」。本文以該現象為切入點,透過參與觀察及深度訪談取得的資料,試圖理解基督徒大學生面對各種世俗主義意識型態的衝擊下,如何維持並調適信仰。我指出他們並非掙扎在科學與宗教的零和想像(獨尊宗教拒斥科學,或信仰科學而拋棄宗教傳統)而是調和兩者協商出自身認識世界的方式;在這過程中充分展現宗教徒作為行動者的雙層反身性:首先,在校園內與非信徒日常互動層次上,他們隨對象、情境的轉變而策略性調整論述科學、宗教與迷信之三角關係的方式,據此既能迴避政治風險、不違逆以科學為優位的主流論述,以保持自我的體面,也有效維持宗教認同並促進傳教。其次,宗教徒反身性還深層地展現在他 們個人主體反思上;深受實證科學及懷疑精神影響,他們透過內在對話,檢視本身宗教經驗是否可靠,也讓主體以嶄新方式於科學定調為內在構框的世界中,遭遇更具延展性的神聖。藉此個案研究,我們能更妥適地理解世俗時代中的宗教變遷,及在此過程中行動者能動性可能扮演的角色。
 
關鍵詞:大學生宗教熱、中國基督教、科學與宗教、宗教經驗、反身性
The recent interest in religion on European and American college campuses indicates that students are not necessarily rejecting religious values due to science education. A similar phenomenon exists in China, where atheism has always been the ruling party’s official ideology, and where on- campus religious activities are officially prohibited. Based on participant observations and interviews, I discuss how Chinese Christian college students maintain their faith within such restrictions. I found that they are not struggling in a zero-sum religion-versus-science game, but successfully reconciling the two by manifesting a two-layered religious reflexivity. When interacting with non-believers, they adjust their elaborations on relationships among science, religion and superstition to maintain a religious identity and to facilitate evangelism. Their reflexivity also manifests in subjective and introverted thinking. They examine their personal religious experiences in the spirit of science education, thus experiencing transcendence amid interstitial space in a science-inspired immanent frame.

Keywords: Christianity in China, faith of college students, reflexivity, religious experience, science and religion